The Mongolian national dwelling “Ger” and associated with it customs were registered unanimously to the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in the UNESCO at the 8th session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Mongol Ger: For tens of thousands of years, Mongolia’s nomadic herders have traveled the countryside according to the seasons.
The herders roamed freely to the most advantageous spots for the season in the land where grazing has always been and still is a public domain. With this lifestyle of unrestricted movement and pastoral animal husbandry, the traditional Mongolian home known as the “Mongol Ger” was created. Round walls, polls, and a round ceiling covered in canvas and felt that is secured with ropes make up the construction. The Ger was made to be portable for Mongolian nomads, flexible for folding, packing, and assembling, durable for repeated dismantling and reassembling, and simple to regulate temperature within.
The Mongol Ger was transformed over many generations into a flawlessly aerodynamic building that can survive Mongolia’s ferocious spring winds, which may reach speeds of up to 18–20 m/sec. A modest family with 1-2 individuals can disassemble it in 30 minutes and assemble it in an hour. Numerous kinds of Mongol Ger exist. The most typical “5-wall Ger” has 88 Uni (long poles that connect wall lattices and Toono, which forms the roof of the Ger), two Bagana (columns that hold the toono), five lattice segments forming a circular wall, a door, three to four layers of felt, traditionally made from sheep’s wool, and an outer layer of waterproof canvas.
Wooden constructions that have been painted and decorated with traditional Mongolian decorations; coverings made of white felt and canvas; ropes woven from animal hair; and hand-sewn felt floors and carpets.
In Mongolian, the term “ger” may signify a case as well as a traditional dwelling-place. Other meanings for “ger” include home, household, and family.
Portable: A Yurt is simple to put together, take apart, and transport (Imagine a Nomadic Herder Moving His Yurt Homes). A yurt may be put together or taken apart in anywhere between thirty minutes and three hours, depending on size. After being disassembled, the various components of the yurt are loaded for transportation onto camel, horse, and ox carts. This trait is crucial since nomadic herders travel at least three or four times a year in search of suitable grazing areas. Ancient nomadic warriors were always on the move during times of conflict, and the mobility of yurts gave them the chance to take their homes with them.
Air circulation: The crown, or toono, of a Ger is an aperture in the middle of the roof. Fresh air is always moving through the yurt as hot air rises and cold air descends since the crown is at the top. Because the crown is in the middle of the roof, fresh air is provided for everyone within, regardless of where they are in the yurt, thanks to the air flowing through it.
Easy to heat and cool: Depending on the season, Mongolia’s temperature fluctuates from -35 to +40 degrees Celsius (-31 to +104 degrees Fahrenheit). The yurt may be modified so that its occupants are comfortable in both hot and cold weather. When necessary, the yurt’s central wood-burning stove distributes heat evenly throughout the building, which is then wrapped in additional layers of felt for insulation during the coldest months.